Key words and phrases: Binary quadratic forms, ideals, cycles of forms, [2] Buell, D. A., Binary Quadratic Forms, Clasical Theory and Modern Computations. “form” we mean an indefinite binary quadratic form with discriminant not a .. [1] D. A. Buell, Binary quadratic forms: Classical theory and modern computations. Citation. Lehmer, D. H. Review: D. A. Buell, Binary quadratic forms, classical theory and applications. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 23 (), no. 2,

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We will consider such operations in a separate section below. Thus, composition gives a well-defined function from pairs of binary quadratic forms to such classes. We see that its first coefficient is well-defined, but the other two depend on the choice of B and C.

In mathematicsa binary quadratic form is a quadratic homogeneous polynomial in two variables. We saw instances of this in the examples above: This article is about binary quadratic forms with integer coefficients.

This operation is substantially more complicated [ citation needed ] than composition of forms, but arose first historically. There is a closed formula [3]. The number of representations of an integer n by a form f is finite if f is definite and infinite if f is indefinite.

Dirichlet published simplifications of the theory that made it accessible to a broader audience. For example, the matrix. The third edition of this work includes two supplements by Guell. The above equivalence conditions define an equivalence relation on the set of integral quadratic forms.

The oldest problem in the theory of binary quadratic forms is the representation problem: This states that forms are in the same genus if they buel, locally equivalent at all rational primes including the Archimedean place. In the context of binary quadratic forms, genera can quadartic defined either through congruence classes of numbers represented by forms or by genus characters defined on the set of forms. A variety of definitions of composition of forms has been given, often in an attempt to simplify the extremely technical and general definition of Gauss.


If a form’s discriminant is a fundamental discriminantthen the form is primitive. We present here Arndt’s method, because it remains rather general while being simple enough to be amenable to computations by hand. Articles fkrms in-text citations from July All articles lacking in-text citations All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Gauss also considered a coarser notion of equivalence, with each coarse class called a genus of forms.

He introduced genus theory, which gives a powerful way to understand the quotient of the class group by the subgroup of squares. Gauss introduced a very general version of a composition operator that allows composing even forms of different discriminants and imprimitive forms. It follows that equivalence defined this way is an equivalence relation and in particular that the forms in equivalent representations are equivalent forms.

These investigations of Gauss strongly influenced both the arithmetical theory of quadratic forms in more than two variables and the subsequent development of algebraic number theory, where quadratic fields are replaced with more general number fields.

When the coefficients can be arbitrary complex numbersmost results are not specific to the case of two variables, so they are described in quadratic form. There is circumstantial evidence of protohistoric knowledge of algebraic identities involving binary quadratic formms. If there is a need to distinguish, sometimes forms are called properly equivalent using the definition above and improperly equivalent if they are equivalent in Lagrange’s sense.


Binary quadratic form – Wikipedia

The notion of equivalence of forms can be extended to equivalent representations. Lagrange was the first to realize that “a coherent general theory required the simulatenous consideration of all forms. In all, there are sixteen different solution pairs.

Another ancient problem involving quadratic forms asks us to solve Pell’s equation. Changing signs of x and y in a solution gives another solution, so it is binxry to seek just solutions in positive integers.

Binary quadratic forms are closely related to ideals in quadratic fields, this allows the class number of a quadratic field to be calculated by counting the number of reduced binary quadratic forms of a given discriminant. But the impact was not immediate. Alternatively, we may view the result of composition, not as a form, but as an equivalence class of forms modulo the action of the group of matrices of the form.

A form is primitive if its content is 1, that is, if its coefficients are coprime. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

Binary Quadratic Forms

Iterating this matrix action, we find that the infinite set of representations of 1 by f that were determined above are all equivalent. The word “roughly” indicates two caveats: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.